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The Periodontics is the specialty of dentistry aimed at the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the periodontium, ie, the set of tissues that include beyond the gums, bone and periodontal ligament, responsible for maintaining the firmness of teeth jaw.

Periodontal diseases are caused by bacterial accumulation in the oral cavity tissues. The deposit of plaque and tartar (calcified plaque) in the existing groove between the gum and the teeth causes a chronic inflammation that destroys the tissues that support the teeth.

Periodontal diseases are divided into two major groups: gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gum disease is caused by the accumulation of bacteria in the gingival sulcus, causing the consequent inflammation and redness and bleeding of the gums. Although anyone with poor oral hygiene is likely to develop gingivitis, certain factors such as pregnancy, puberty, poorly positioned teeth or wearing dentures difficult to sanitize potentiate the onset of pathology.

When gingivitis is not properly diagnosed and treated, the bacterial infection can progress becoming a more complex problem that affects other tissues beyond the gums. Periodontitis causes irreversible loss of bone, with consequent dental mobility and the major cause of tooth loss in adults. Emotional stress, smoking or systemic diseases such as diabetes can function as risk factors in the onset of disease.